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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is also simply known as diabetes. It’s a chronic condition related to your metabolism. Diabetes basically affects the body’s ability to use the energy in your daily food intake. Your body will have abnormal levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood.

What happens in your body when you have diabetes?

In a normal situation, your body breaks down the carbohydrates and sugars you eat into glucose which acts as the fuel for the cells in your body. For your cells to take in the glucose and use them for energy, the cells need insulin in your bloodstream.
 
With diabetes, either your body doesn’t make enough insulin or it can’t use the insulin it does produce. Due to the lack of insulin, the cells can’t take the glucose in so it builds up in your blood. These high glucose levels can cause damage to the small blood vessels in your heart, kidneys, nervous system or eyes. There are different types of diabetes.

Different types of diabetes

In general, people with diabetes either have a total lack of insulin (type 1 diabetes) or they do not have enough insulin or cannot use it effectively (type 2). In the case of type 1 diabetes, the body’s immune system destroys the cells that release insulin. This eventually eliminates insulin production from the body. High blood sugar level is common in this case. This condition usually starts in childhood and cannot be prevented.
 
Type 2 diabetes is usually discovered in adulthood but an increasing number of children is being diagnosed as well. Episodes of low blood sugar are not common. Type 2 diabetes is often related to an unhealthy lifestyle and obesity. Diabetes type 2 can be prevented or delayed with weight control and exercise.

Complications of diabetes

Whether you have diabetes type 1 or 2, the conditions increases the risk of serious complications like blindness, kidney failure, heart disease, stroke and foot or leg amputations. It is therefore very important to monitor diabetes closely and prevent problems from getting worse.